After being jailed for life in 1964, Nelson Mandela became a worldwide symbol of resistance to apartheid. But his opposition to racism began many years before.
Born in the rural Transkei on 18 July 1918 into an African royal family largely dispossessed by colonising, his grandfather had been a king and his father was a chief. But he himself was destined not for royalty but for revolution.
Nelson Mandela (R) with ANC colleagues in the 1960s
A young Nelson Mandela (r) helped restructure the ANC
After Methodist boarding schools where they sang God Save The King, he went to the only black university in South Africa, Fort Hare. He began to rebel against authority and was expelled.
While living in a poor township in Johannesburg, and working as a security guard and then as a clerk at a law firm, he met the ANC activist Walter Sisulu and made friends with liberals and communists.